The present study examined the differential contributions of adolescent-reported maternal and paternal attachment anxiety and avoidance on friendship security and intimacy. Participants were 776 Canadian adolescents between the ages of 13 and 19 years (M = 15.18, SD = 1.58) who provided ratings of their perceived attachment avoidance and anxiety towards their mothers and fathers and responded to measures of friendship security and intimacy. Findings showed that maternal and paternal attachment avoidance and not anxiety negatively predicted friendship security. Moreover, maternal attachment avoidance was negatively associated with friendship intimacy. Multigroup analyses showed that security was negatively predicted by maternal anxious attachment for junior high school boys and girls. Additionally, paternal avoidant attachment was negatively associated with friendship intimacy for junior high school boys and girls. These findings highlight the unique effects associated with maternal and paternal attachment on specific friendship features and underscore the importance of the role of fathers in adolescence.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST
There are no conflicts of interest to report.
DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT
Data are available upon request due to privacy/ethical restrictions.
- 1989). Attachments beyond infancy. American Psychologist, 44(4), 709–716. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.709
- 2008). Intimate disclosure in adolescent friendship: The roles of attachment, coherence, and self-disclosure. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 25(3), 409–428. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407508090866
- 2009). Methods for investigating children's relationships with friends. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 63–81). Guilford.
- 1966). Human security: Some reflections. University of Toronto Press.
- 1982). Attachment and loss: Retrospect and prospect. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 52(4), 664–678. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1982.tb01456.x
- 1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment: An integrative overview. In J. A. Simpson & W. S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46–76). Guilford.
- 2020). The role of self-compassion in the relationship between attachment, depression, and quality of life. Journal of Affective Disorders, 260(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad/2019.08.066
- 2002). Developmental patterns in adolescent attachment to mother, father, and sibling. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 31(3), 167–176. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1015074701280
- 1989). Popularity and friendship: Issues in theory, measurement, and outcome. In T. J. Berndt & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Wiley series on personality processes: Peer relationships in child development (pp. 15–45). Wiley.
- 2009). Friendship as process, function, and outcome. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 217–231). Guilford Press.
- 2001). Truth, lies, and intimate disclosure: An attachment perspective. Attachment & Human Development, 3(2), 121–155. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616730110058999
- 2005). Predictors of dyadic friendship quality in adolescence. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 29(2), 165–172. https://doi.org/10.1080/01650250444000360
- 2022). Parental attachment and peer relationships in adolescence: A systematic review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19, 1064. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19031064
- 2015). Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins. Aggressive Behavior, 41, 455–466. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21852
- 2002). Attachment security with mother and father: Associations with adolescents' reports of interpersonal behaviour with parents and peers. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19(2), 203–231. https://doi.org/10/1177/0265407502192003
- 1993). Sage series on individual differences and development, Vol. 4. Young children's close relationships: Beyond attachment. Sage.
- 1996). The measurement of friendship perceptions: Conceptual and methodological issues. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), Cambridge studies in social and emotional development. The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 41–65). Cambridge University Press.
- 1985). Children's perceptions of the personal relationships in their social networks. Developmental Psychology, 21, 1016–1022. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-1618.104.22.1686
- 2012). Peer attachment: A meta-analytic review of gender and age differences and associations with parent attachment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 41, 650–672. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-012-9759-6
- 2014). The significance of attachment security for children's social competence with peers: A meta-analytic study. Attachment & Human Development, 16(2), 103–136. https://doi.org/10.1080/14616734.2014.883636
- 1999). The construction of the self: A developmental perspective. Guilford.
- 1979). Towards understanding relationships. Published in cooperation with European Association of Experimental Social Psychology by Academic Press.
- 1997). Relationships: A dialectical perpsective. Psychology Press.
- 1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118
- 1991). Contributions of parental attachment and family structure to the social and psychological functioning of first-year college students. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 38(4), 479–486. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1249
- 2016). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford.
- 2017). Perceptions of parent-child attachment relationships and friendship qualities: Predictors of romantic relationship involvement and quality in adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46, 1009–1021. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-017-0645-0
- 1997). A developmental guide to the organization of close relationships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 21, 747–770. https://doi.org/10.1080/016502597384659
- 2006). Paternal/maternal attachment, peer support, social expectations of peer interaction, and depressive symptoms. Adolescence, 41(164), 705–721.
- 2006). Developmental differences in adolescents' and young adults' use of mothers, fathers, best friends, and romantic partners to fulfill attachment needs. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35(1), 127–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-005-9014-5
- 2000). The Comprehensive Adolescent-Parent Attachment Inventory (CAPAI). Unpublished measure and data. Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, Canada.
- 1998–2017). Mplus user's guide ( 8th ed.). Author.
- 2006). Age and gender differences in peer conflict. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 881–891. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9088-8
- 1977). Insiders’ and outsiders’ views of relationships: Research studies. In G. Levinger & H. L. Rausch (Eds.), Close relationships: Perspectives on the meaning of intimacy (pp. 115–135). University of Massachusetts Press.
- 2010). Predicting friendship quality with rejection sensitivity and attachment security. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 28(2), 163–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407510380607
- 2014). Early child-parent attachment and peer relations: A meta-analysis of recent research. Journal of Family Psychology, 28(1), 118–123. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035736
- 2016). Different effects of paternal and maternal attachment on psychological health among Chinese secondary school students. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 25, 2998–3008. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-016-0463-0
- 1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 611–621. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1991
- Validation of the Adolescent Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance Inventory Among Canadian Secondary School Students. Journal of Child and Family Studies. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-022-02392-0
- 2021). The concurrent association between friendship security and friendship satisfaction is moderated by experience within the family context. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 67, 56–74. https://doi.org/10.13110/merrpalmquar.1982.67.1.0056
- 2010). Friendship stability and change in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Review, 30, 257–272. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2009.01.001
- 2009). Intimate disclosure. In H. T. Reis & S. Sprecher (Eds.), Encyclopedia of human relationships (pp. 919–923). Sage.
- 2011). Attachment and mental and physical health: Self-compassion and mattering as mediators. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 58(2), 272–278. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023041
- 2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationship processes: Potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioural development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 98–131. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.132.1.98
- 2016). Girls' and boys' problem talk: Implications for emotional closeness in friendships. Developmental Psychology, 52, 629–639. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000096
- 2006). Peer interactions, relationships, and groups. In N. Eisenberg, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (pp. 571–645). Wiley.
- 2007). The protective role of friendships in overtly and relationally victimized boys and girls. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 53, 439–460. https://doi.org/10.1353/mpq.2007.0021
- 2001). Child–parent attachment and children's peer relations: A quantitative review. Developmental Psychology, 37, 86–100. https://doi.org/10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52
- 1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. W. W. Norton & Co.
- 2013). Peer victimization and internalizing symptoms from adolescence into young adulthood: Building strength through emotional support. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 23, 290–303. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-795.2012.00827.x
- 1990). Developments in cross-cultural research on attachment: Some methodological notes. Human Development, 33, 3–9. https://doi.org/10.1159/000276498
- 2008). Cross-cultural patterns of attachment: Universal and contextual dimensions. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: Theory, research, and clinical applications (pp. 880–905). Guilford.
- 2020). Paternal and maternal attachment: A multifaceted perspective on adolescents' friendship. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 29, 217–226. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-019-01552-z
- 2017). Friendship security, but not friendship intimate disclosure, moderates the stability of anxiety during preadolescence. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 46(6), 798–809. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1094742